Trang tiếng Việt
Overview of Ca Mau Province - Part 1 Print
Thursday, 06 September 2012 14:50

VIETRADoverview_of_ca_mau_1E - Geographical position: Ca Mau, which is located in Mekong River Delta, is a coastal province in the southernmost of Vietnam. It lies on Ca Mau Peninsula and shares border with Kien Giang Province to the north, Bac Lieu Province to the east, the East Sea to the east and the south, the Gulf of Thailand to the west. Ca Mau has a coastline of 254 kilometres long and belongs to the eastern coastal corridor of the Southwestern waters (Bac Lieu–Ganh Hao–Ca Mau–Nam Can). It lies in the center of ASEAN sea, especially in Thailand Gulf, which has great potentiality of oil and gas reserves, eco-tourism and sea travel.


Area: 5,329 sq. km, making up 13.13% of the Mekong River Delta and 1.58% of the whole country area.


Topography: The territory of Ca Mau is generally flat and low, and has no rock mountain in the mainland (there are some island clusters offshore). The average height of the terrain is from 0.5 to 1m above sea level. Those areas of fluvial sediment or fluvial-marine mixed sediment, marine-marsh mixed sediment or marsh sediment have a lower height (of average height or being sunken) accounting for 89% of the province’s area.


Climate: Ca Mau has a subequatorial tropical climate with a high temperature. (The average temperature is 26.50C, the highest temperature of the year is in April at 27.60C, and the lowest one is in January at about 250C).


The typical feature of the climate here is that the seasons are clearly distinguished: the rainy season is from May to November, the dry one is from December to April of the following year. The average humidity is 85.6%. In the dry season, the humidity is lower; especially in March, it is only about 80%. In general, Ca Mau has a temperate climate, which is lest severe than that of other provinces’.


Population: 1,206,938 people (by April 1, 2009). Like that of the whole country’s as well as the region’s, Ca Mau has a multi-population structure. There are 20 peoples in the province, the Kinh people makes up the most part, the Khmer people about 3%, and the Chinese 0.95%.


Population density: 226.5 people/square kilometre


Labor force: 643,815 people, making up 57.5% of the population.



Soil resource

The soil in Ca Mau formed from young sediment during the Holocene epoch, in which 34% of the area is fluvial or fluvial-marine mixed sediment, 12% is fluvial-marsh mixed sediment, 13% marine-marsh mixed sediment, 36% marine sediment, and 2% marsh sediment. Therefore, over 50% of the soil is alkaline soil to heavy alkaline soil. In general, the province’s soil is young, which has been cultivated recently, and is of rather high fertility, high organic substance content but, because of high alum poisoning, it is ranked as “fertile-limited soil” at different levels towards agricultural production.


Water resource

- Facial water resource: The main facial water resource of Ca Mau is from rain and the sea, contained in natural river and canal system, irrigation cana ls, mangrove forests, indigo forests, and aquatic product fields.


- Underground water resource: This resource is of high reserves and quality, enough for everyday life and industrial production.


Forest resource

As having been planned for the three kinds of forest, by 2020 Ca Mau Province will have 108,025 ha of agricultural land, in which, 17,830.7 ha of special-use forest, accounting for 16.51% of forestry land; 26,132.6 ha of protective forest, accounting for 24.19% of agricultural land; 64,061.61 ha of production land, accounting for 59.30% of agricultural land.


Ca Mau forest includes coastal mangrove forest (in districts of Ngoc Hien, Nam Can, Dam Doi, and Phu Tan) and alum waterlogged indigo forest (in districts of U Minh, Tran Van Thoi, and Thoi Binh).


These are two specific forest eco-systems in the Mekong River Delta with high bio-diversity. Especially, the coastal mangrove forest and the Lower U Minh indigo forest play an important role in ecology balancing, climate harmonizing, and protecting the coastal areas.


Besides, in the islands of Hon Khoai and Hon Chuoi, there is 583 ha of precious tree forest. However, the economic net value of Ca Mau forest is not high. It is especially because the indigo forest has low reserves, indigo products are of low purchasing power, and the risk of forest fire is high. The total forest reserves of Ca Mau is about 2.2 million cubic meters, in which, indigo forest reserve is about 1.44 million cubic meters, and mangrove forest reserve is about 770,000 cubic meters (the average rate of forest reserve is 22 cubic meters/ha, especially, mangrove forest reserve is 12 cubic meters/ ha).


Mineral resource

- Gas and oil: There is great potentiality of oil and gas at the southwestern continental shelf (especially the Gulf of Thailand). There are also many sediment basins with high potentiality of oil and gas, the most important of which is Malay-Tho Chu basin with many exploratory drill plots for oil and gas (from plot 36 to plot 51, plots of A and B, PM-3CAA commercial agreement area between Vietnam and Malaysia, and the recently fixed area between Vietnam and Thailand). These are areas having high natural gas potentiality and reserve. The Malay-Tho Chu basin has an estimated reserve of 380 million cubic metres of converted oil (according to Petro Vietnam), the discovered reserve is of about 230 million cubic metres; the discovered reserve of oil alone is about 212 billion cubic metres with the annual exploited yield of over 10 billion cubic metres. These are national precious natural resources, and also good conditions for the industrial development of the Mekong River Delta in general and Ca Mau Province in particular (Ca Mau Gas-Power Fertilizer Complex project, Khanh An Industrial Park, etc.)


- Coastal sand: Along the 36-kilometre long distance from Bo De Estuary to Ca Mau Cape (Ngoc Hien District) there is a sand beach with one kilometre width. This sand beach is of low reserve, mainly of soft and smooth sand, and without industrial value. The main purpose is to develop tourism on coastal sand beach (Khai Long Beach).


- Peat: The peat area of Lower U Minh Forest is one of the largest ones of Vietnam, primarily allocating at Lower U Minh National Park (including Vo Doi special-use forest) and Lower U Minh Forestry Company. The total remaining area of peat (after big forest fires in 1988 and 2002) is 5,640ha. This is a large peat marsh with high identity in forming conditions as well as the peat-forming substances so that the peat is of stable quality and can be used to produce firing, micro-organic fertilizers, humic acid, and activated charcoal. After many times of forest fire, the peat reserve has seriously reduced. The present remaining reserve is about 14.1 million tons (a12-fold decrease compared to that of 1976), in which the exploratory reserve is 4.8 million tons. This resource should be examined soon and reasonably and effectively exploited.

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